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Ensuring Universal Adherence

What the Convention says

  • The Convention emphasizes that the States Parties are “determined to work strenuously towards the promotion of its universalization in all relevant fora.”
  • In accepting the Convention, “each State Party undertakes to never under any circumstances:
    • use anti-personnel mines;
    • develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile, retain or transfer to anyone, directly or indirectly, anti-personnel mines;
    • assist, encourage or induce, in any way, anyone to engage in any activity prohibited to a State Party under this Convention.” 
  • It should be noted that “the Articles of this Convention shall not be subject to reservations.”

Progress made

164 States have ratified or acceded to the Convention. They include:

  • Most of the States that at one time used, stockpiled, produced or transferred anti-personnel mines.
  • The majority of States that are or have been affected by anti-personnel mines.
  • Every state in the Americas except Cuba and the United States.
  • Every state in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The use of anti-personnel mines has decreased dramatically through adherence to the Convention and the widespread acceptance of its provisions by States not party.

The production of anti-personnel mines has decreased significantly: Of the 50 States that at one time produced anti-personnel mines, 34 are now bound by the Convention.

Challenges that remain

  • 33 States have not yet ratified or acceded to the Convention. 
  • Combined, six of these States – China, India, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Russia and the United States – may hold tens of millions of stockpiled antipersonnel mines.
  • Some States not party to the Convention have made new use of anti-personnel mines.
  • Some armed non-state actors continue to use, stockpile, and produce anti-personnel mines. 




To date, 164 States have formally agreed to be bound by the Convention.

 States Parties with dates of formal acceptance of the Convention and entry into forc

 States not party to the Convention 


The Convention defines an anti-personnel mine as “a mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons.”
Claymore-type munitions (pictured above) are prohibited when these munitions are activated by a trip-wire (i.e., victim-activated).
They can lawfully be used in a command-detonated mode (i.e., when they are not victim activated).